Stoicism: Naturalism, Corporealism and Logos

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In the period of philosophical development that arose as the influence of the Greek culture bled into the period of Roman/ Latin dominance in the Mediterranean and Near East, both the Stoic as well as the Epicurean philosophic schools rose in…
Laozi (Lao-tzu)

The Lǎozǐ and Zhuangzi: Daoism and the Way of Virtue

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As the Confucian school was referred to as Rújiā, the Daoist school was referred to as Daojiā, each called out as one of the six main philosophical schools during the Warring States Period to the Early/Former Han.  While a Daoist “canon”…
Death of Socrates

The Legacy of Socrates: Skepticism, Knowledge and Reason

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One of the best indications of the influence of Socrates on the development of Western philosophy, what the Hellenes, or Greeks, termed philosophia, his ideas being primarily represented by the writings of his best known pupil Plato, is the…

Ancient Chinese Theology: Shàngdì, Pángǔ, Tiān and the Dao

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Before the evolution of the more esoteric and all-encompassing principle of Heaven (Tiān) which we find so prevalent in classical Chinese philosophical circles after the advent of the Zhou Dynasty, the primary divine entity that is worshipped…

Plato’s Metaphysics: Being and Becoming

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Perhaps Plato’s greatest contribution to Western philosophy is the idealism embedded in his Theory of Forms, which in essence breaks down existence itself as not only a physical world of inanimate and animate objects, but a theory of knowledge…