Laozi (Lao-tzu)

The Lǎozǐ and Zhuangzi: Daoism and the Way of Virtue

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As the Confucian school was referred to as Rújiā, the Daoist school was referred to as Daojiā, each called out as one of the six main philosophical schools during the Warring States Period to the Early/Former Han.  While a Daoist “canon”…

Early Chinese Philosophy: The Humanism of Confucius

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The classical period of ancient Chinese philosophy runs from about the 6th century BCE till the 2nd century BCE and is marked by the proliferation and flowering of many varying philosophical schools, an era in Chinese history referred to (by…

Ancient Chinese Theology: From Shàngdì to Tiān

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The Chinese civilization is if not the, then certainly one of, the oldest persistent civilizations on the planet.[1]  Its roots go back to the early part of the second millennium BCE with the first dynastic empire, the Xia Dynasty (circa c.…

Confucian Philosophy in Antiquity

Confucius (c. 551 – 479 BCE) stands alongside Laozi as one of the great independent Chinese philosophers in antiquity, supposedly having consulted Laozi on some aspects of funeral rights and being impressed with his insight, or so the tradition…

The Advent of Monotheism: One Step forward and Two Steps Back

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So there he was, really no closer to finding the source of materialism, or more aptly put by modern philosophers as the mechanistic world-view, than when he started his journey back through the dawn of civilization and mankind’s search for…