Subject-Object Metaphysics and Quality: A Reformulation of Logical Positivism

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Subject-object metaphysics, the reality doctrine of modern day, with the apex of thought represented by the highest levels of abstraction in mathematics and Theoretical Physics, has its origins as a reaction, a parallel conception of the nature…

Modern Psychology: Freudian and Jungian Perspectives

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It must be understood that Psychology as a discipline, at least how we think of it today, did exist in antiquity.  There were fairly well thought systems of belief however that framed Psychology, the study of the Soul, within the context…

Interpretations of Quantum Theory: Physics Meets Philosophy

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If one believes in the power of mathematics to describe the universe, as the language of God so to speak, a notion which underpins all of Physics in the post Enlightenment Era as reflected in the two pillars of modern Physics, namely…

The View from the West: The History of Objective Realism

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The East-West division with respect to worldviews and ways of thinking clearly has significant limits in interpretative utility despite its proliferation and widespread use in the academic and intellectual community, in the West in particular. …

Schrödinger’s Cat: The Death of Local Realism

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As civilizations and empires emerged in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East, there was a need, a vacuum if you will, for a theological/religious force to keep these vast empires together.  One can see this reflected in the proliferation…

Quantum Mechanics: Wave-Particle Duality and Uncertainty

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Following the intellectual bread crumbs of Albert Einstein, let’s try to understand how his revolutionary ideas and theories of universal gravitation, the notion of spacetime, the establishment of the equivalence of mass and energy, the necessary…

Albert Einstein: Spacetime and Relativity Theory

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As we trace the intellectual developments through beyond Middle Ages into and beyond the Enlightenment Era, we find that reason and logic, referred to more specifically as rationalism and empiricism, become the predominant intellectual…

The Metaphysics of Morality: Kantian Cognitive Ontology

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The Enlightenment no doubt represents one of the most transformative periods in the history of civilization.  While it was primarily an intellectual (really philosophical) movement, with a locus in 8th century Europe, it is rooted in intellectual…

The Age of Enlightenment: The Philosophy of Science

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Ever since the dawn of civilization mankind has created mythological, semantic and metaphysical paradigms within which the nature of existence and knowledge itself, along with the underlying order of the heavens and the earth and all its creatures…

Islamic Philosophy: Allāh as the Final Cause

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One cannot properly explore the evolution of metaphysics and theology in Western civilization and its metamorphosis into science, without having some level of understanding of its development and evolution after the so-called fall of the Roman…